**Georgi Stankov, May 18, 2017**

The** hot expanding hypothesis** of the standard model in cosmology assumes that the universe, as observed today, has evolved from a state of homogeneous energy with a negligible space and incredible density which exploded in a small fraction of a second. This initial state of the universe is described as the “**big bang**“. Since then, the **visible universe** – recall that cosmologists can only perceive the visible universe – is believed to have been expanding incessantly. For further information on the “big bang” hypothesis and how this bogus idea was introduced historically in science read also this article:

**The “Big Bang” Is Yet to Come in the Empty Brain Cavities of the Cosmologists – Two PAT Opinions**

In the context of this cosmological outlook, **Hubble’s law** is interpreted as a “law of expansion“. As this law is an application of the universal equation, we must reject this cosmological interpretation on axiomatic grounds. I have shown that Hubble’s law assesses the constant space-time of the visible universe (see my previous article). The two natural constants that are derived from this law, the **radius of the visible universe *** R_{U} *and

**Hubble time**assessing the

**age**of the expanding universe

**1**

**/**=

**H**_{o }**=**

*A*_{U}**1/**, give the constant

*f*_{vis}*space*and

*time*of the

**visible universe**and confirm this conclusion. In this way I eliminate the first basic pillar of the standard model – the interpretation of Hubble’s law as a law of universal expansion.

We shall now present additional proofs for this irrefutable conclusion. The idea of the expanding universe is a consequence of the faulty idea of **homogeneous** space-time in the *theory of relativity*. I have shown in the new physical and mathematical theory of the Universal Law (volume I and volume II) that Einstein had not completely corrected the empty Euclidean space of classical mechanics, but had only introduced the reciprocity of space and time for the systems of matter.

Einstein regarded the gravitational objects as embedded in empty and “massless” photon space-time defined as vacuum, which is an absolutely wrong idea (I have proved that photons have mass and thus eliminated another epic blunder of present-day cosmology – the existence of “**dark matter**“- that alone makes it to fake science). With respect to the reciprocity of space and time, he assumed in the *general theory of relativity* that vacuum could be curved or bent by local gravitation. The current interpretation is that the path of light is attracted by local gravitational potentials and for this reason cannot be a straight line in space.

When this space-time concept is applied to cosmology, it inevitably leads to the neglect of the **finite lifetimes** **of stars**, as they have been described by *Chandrasekhar* and have been only later verified in modern astrophysics. The finite lifetime of any gravitational system is a consequence of the energy exchange between matter and photon space-time.

The new Axiomatics clearly states that all systems, being superimposed rotations, have a finite lifetime which is only determined by the *conditions of constructive and destructive interference*. During this vertical energy exchange, the space-time of the material levels, such as atomic level, electron level, thermodynamic level etc., is transformed into the space-time of the photon level and vice versa.

Photons have a much greater space than that of the particles of material levels, as can be demonstrated by the [1*d-space*]-quantities of their elementary action potentials: the **Compton wavelengths** of the *electron*,** λ _{c,e}=2.4×10^{-12 }m**, the

*proton*,

**λ**, and the

_{c,pr}=1.32×10^{-15 }*m**neutron*,

**λ**are much smaller than the wavelength of the

_{c,n}=1.32 ×10^{-15 }*m***elementary action potential**

*of the photon level,*

**h****λ**, or more precisely, in the order of their intrinsic time – the specific

_{A }= 3×10^{8 }*m***Compton frequencies**(see Table 1).

The [1*d-space*]-quantity of the **elementary action potential** is a specific constant of the corresponding level. It assesses the specific space of the level. During vertical energy exchange between two levels, the expansion of space-time changes discretely in specific constant quantitative leaps. These leaps can be assessed by building space and time relationships between the levels (the **universal equation** as a *rule of three*). Such constants are dimensionless numbers. In the new Axiomatics, I call them “**absolute constants of vertical energy exchange**“ (see Volume II, chapter 9.9).

When we observe vertical energy exchange only in one direction, for instance, from matter to photon space-time, this process is perceived as an **explosive expansion** of space-time. This is precisely the current cosmological view.

The thermonuclear explosion is a typical, albeit more trivial, example of an energy exchange from the nuclear level towards the photon level also defined as *radiation*. This process is associated with an extreme **space expansion** described as a “**nuclear wave**“. The reason for this is the extremely small space of the hadrons compared to the expansion of the emitted photons during nuclear explosion, as has been demonstrated by the corresponding time magnitudes of these systems of space-time – the *Compton frequencies* or alternative by their intrinsic space constants – the* Compton wavelengths* (see above).

When this vertical energy exchange is observed in the direction from photon space-time to matter, it manifests itself as a **contraction of space**. *Black holes* are a typical example of extreme space contraction and for that reason they are circumscribed as “space singularities“. Initially, black holes were believed to only “devour“ space and matter. However, this would be a violation of the *law of energy conservation *(1*st law of thermodynamics)*.

Later on, it has been proven (within mathematics, because black holes cannot be directly observed) that black holes emit *gamma radiation* at their *event horizon* and thus obey the **axiom of conservation of action potentials **(see Axiomatics), just like all other systems of space-time. This has eliminated the spectacular character of these celestial bodies. For this reason the Russian term for black holes “frozen stars” is more appropriate.

The **mean frequency of gamma radiation** of black holes ** f_{H}** can be presented as a function of the

**intrinsic time**of the elementary particles of matter:

*f**m _{p }f_{H} = m_{p }( f_{c,e} + f_{pr,e} + f_{n,e })* /3

The high temperature of black holes is another quantity of material time – of the time of the thermodynamic level of matter. In Volume II, chapter 5.5, I have derived the new fundamental **CBR-constant** ** K_{CBR} ** and have shown that the frequency of the maximal emitted radiation depends only on the temperature of the material body:

**_{ }f_{max} = K_{CBR} × T **( see Vol II, equation (82)).

In the next publication I shall use this constant to reject the second pillar of the standard model – the traditional interpretation of the **3K-cosmic background radiation (CBR) **(actually 2.73 K radiation as discussed in my previous article).

The **3K-CBR** is believed to be a remnant of the hot radiation of the big bang, which has resulted from the subsequent adiabatic expansion of the universe. This view is presented in the standard model of cosmology and is closely associated with the erroneous interpretation of **redshifts** by Hubble’s law which will be discussed in a further publication.

From this elaboration, we conclude:

When the vertical energy exchange is observed only one way, that is, from matter to photon space-time, it gives the impression of **space expansion**. When the energy exchange is considered unilaterally from photon space-time to matter, it gives the impression of **space contraction**. When both directions are taken into consideration, the **total change of space-time **measured as** ΔV**_{U } (**V**_{U }stands for the **volume of the universe**) is zero:

**ΔV _{U} = 0**, or

**V**

_{U}= constant.**Space-time remains constant**.

This is an axiomatic statement of the new theory. It could have been easily deduced from the conventional *law of conservation of energy *and humanity would have been spared this intellectual insanity that fraudulent, stupid or unethical scientists have offered to humanity as fake cosmology.

**Read also: Modern Cosmology Revised in the Light of the Universal Law – a Critical Survey**

In present-day cosmology, photon space-time is regarded as a homogeneous empty void. For that reason this discipline considers the vertical energy exchange between matter and photon space-time only one way: from matter, which can be observed, to empty space, which allegedly has no structure because it cannot be directly perceived by human senses, although it is obvious in physics today that all elementary particles are spontaneously created from the “energy-rich” vacuum (void), which is a classical oxymoron and the greatest idio(cy) of all. This one-sided anthropocentric view – human beings are part of matter – which is a product of their limited senses and linearly thinking carbon-based brain, automatically evokes the misleading impression that the universe expands in the void.

As the finite lifetimes of stars are not considered in this outlook, modern cosmology has no adequate idea of the discrete, ubiquitous energy exchange between matter and photon space-time, unlike in the new Axiomatics. In Volume II, chapter 3.7, I have proved that when the **axiom of reciprocal LRC** is applied to the visible universe, this system of space-time can be described as a function of the LRC of the photon level and the gravitational level.

The space of the visible universe given as* S_{U}* , which is the

**circumference**[1

*d-space*] of the event horizon

*as the spherical surface [2*

**K**_{S}*d-space*]of the visible universe (see equation (241) in Volume II) is proportional to the

*LRC*(

**universal photon gradient**) of the photon level

*, which stands for*

**LRC**_{p}= U_{U}= c^{2}*space expansion*, and is inversely proportional to the

*LRC*of gravitation as expressed by the

*(which is*

**gravitational constant G***field*or

*acceleration*per definition) that stands for the

*contraction of space*as gravitation is a force of attraction (see equation (37a), Volume II):

*S _{U}* =

*c*/G

^{2}**This beautiful, simple equation is an application of the Universal Equation as a rule of three**. It embodies the entire space-time behaviour of the visible universe according to the **axiom of reducibility **and exposes** **current cosmology as absolutely “fake science”. It proves that its** circumference** * S_{U }*which describes the event horizon of the visible universe is a constant [1

*d-space*]-quantity because it is a quotient of two

*natural constants*,

**and**

*c***assessing the two levels of vertical energy exchange – photon space-time and gravitation for matter.**

*G,*It is indeed amazing how it is possible that so much information which encompasses the entire theory of modern cosmology can be condensed in such a simple equation, which is a rule of three and thus the simplest equation in human mathematics. This is the virtue of the new theory of the Universal Law. It shows us that:

- Simplicity is beautiful.
- Simplicity is pure knowledge.
- Simplicity is the utmost form of aesthetics.

For obvious reasons, cosmology can only assess the space-time of the visible universe and is not in a position to obtain any experimental evidence beyond its event horizon. This is the privilege of the new Axiomatics of the Universal Law – it assesses the primary term of All-That-Is epistemologically and not empirically (priority of axiomatization over empiricism).

As we see, the new Axiomatics affects an incredible simplification in our cosmological outlook and rejects the idea of an expanding universe as a false unilateral perception of the energy exchange between matter and photon space-time. This idea has given birth to many paradoxes, which are closely associated with the interpretation of the **Doppler effect** in the context of Hubble’s law. This will be the topic of two more publications on the new cosmology of the Universal Law.

**Read also**: **Doppler Effect Is the Universal Proof for the Reciprocity of Space and Time**