by Georgi Alexandrov Stankov
Copyright 1998, 424 pages
Volume II on physics and cosmology is a further elaboration of the integrated physical and mathematical axiomatics of the Universal Law to a unified theory of physics and cosmology and can be read independently of volume I on physics and mathematics. However, we recommend the reader, to begin with Volume I and only then proceed with Volume II.
Volume II contains the basic achievements of the new General Theory of Physics and Cosmology of the Universal Law. It covers the physical theory as presented in standard textbooks on physics and cosmology for students worldwide and goes further than that by presenting new derivations of fundamental natural constants and particular physical laws from the Universal Law, which are not known to physicists yet.
The book has adopted the common didactic pattern of presenting the physical theory as it can be found in most standard textbooks on this subject. However, it begins with a thorough introduction to the basic statements of the new physical and mathematical axiomatics of the Universal Law, which is a completely new theoretical approach in this discipline.
In Volume I, the new axiomatics was derived ontologically and epistemologically from the primary term of human consciousness by presenting abundant empirical evidence from various fields of science and human cognition. Its validity was presented as the crowning result of an extensive empirical and introspective research effort.
In volume II, the new physical and mathematical axiomatics is placed at the beginning, so that all subsequent results and mathematical derivations in physics and cosmology are grounded in this irrefutable system of logical human thinking. This is a completely new didactic and ontological approach to science and physics.
Exactly this new approach makes the comprehension of the physical stuff by the reader much easier, as it automatically eliminates all the semantic and gnostic confusion that is currently observed in conventional physics and hinders an understanding of the Nature of All-That-Is.
After the new physical and mathematical axiomatics is thoroughly introduced, the book proceeds with the applications of the Universal Law in classical mechanics, wave theory, thermodynamics, electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and ends up with the theory of relativity and cosmology. Each chapter contains numerous exercises concerning practical applications of the Universal Law that should be solved by the students. In some cases, possible solutions are suggested.
There are many chapters in the book that contain new derivations of natural constants and physical laws, as well as further applications of the Universal law that are presented for the first time in the history of this discipline and go beyond conventional physical knowledge. These chapters are specially designated to make the reader aware of their novelty.
This includes many new fundamental physical constants and laws, such as Stankov’s law on photon thermodynamics, which help integrate the physical world into a complete mathematical input-output model that is of universal practical (in terms of empiric measurements) and theoretical validity. This is one of the major achievements of the new Physical Theory of the Universal Law as presented in this volume.
The new physical theory in volume II confirms all the mathematical results obtained in physics so far. At the same time, it disproves some fundamental concepts that have not been really challenged by any scientist until now.
In the first place, the second law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of entropy, is refuted, while its mathematical derivations are obtained from the Universal Law and explained by its theory. This theoretical achievement eliminates the fundamental antinomy in present-day science – the existence of highly organized organic matter with evolving consciousness versus dissipating matter as stated by the law of entropy.
The refutation of this law is of great importance in the End Times of mankind and this planet, as this law rejects the possibility of the Ascension of human beings to the 5th and higher dimensions. In fact, it rejects the existence of such levels of highly organized energy.
This volume can be therefore used as a complete textbook on the new theory of physics and cosmology by all physicists, students of physics and other natural sciences with a good knowledge of conventional physics and mathematics.
In addition, the reader must be aware of the numerous blunders, inconsistencies and paradoxes in present-day physics from an epistemological and methodological point of view to fully grasp the new presentation of this discipline in this volume. This appears to be a great challenge to most specialists, as long as they stick to their old, wrong physical dogmas and show no inclination to enter new ways of perceiving the Nature of All-That-Is.
The comprehension of Volume II is a necessary prerequisite to understanding the theory of the New Gnosis of the Universal Law as it has been developed by the author in five philosophical books published on this website.
The new physical theory presented in volume II is thus the foundation of the new transcendental physics that will be available to all human beings after their Ascension in the 5th dimension by the end of 2012 (Earth did indeed ascend to 5D in December 2012. Some light warriors of the first and the last hour as the author also ascended to 5D and then returned as avatars to this earth to help humanity also ascend in the coming years as most humans were in a deep slumber and the initial plan of ascension had to be postponed as to achieve higher numbers of ascension on all timelines.). Therefore, it is accurate to say that the physical theory in this volume is the new Science of Ascension.
1.1 A critical analysis of modern physics
2. THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW PHYSICAL AXIOMATICS
2.1 Philosophical propaedeutics
2.2 Intuitive formalistic statements
2.3 Empirically verifiable statements and mathematical derivations
Essays under the following points:
Point 24: Systems of measurement and units in physics
Point 37: Probability set and continuum are mathematical concepts of space-time
3. CLASSICAL MECHANICS
3.1 Formalistic methods of presentation
3.2 Newton’s laws
– Hooke’s law
– The General Continuum Law is the differential form of the Universal Law
3.3 Work and energy in mechanics
3.4 Space-time of rotation
3.5 Kepler’s laws
3.6 Newton’s law of gravity is a derivation of the universal equation (ND)
3.7 The ontology of Newton’s law from consciousness – A paradigm of how physical laws are introduced in physics (ND)
– The radius and the mass of the earth are functions of photon space-time
3.8 Mass and mind
3.9 Mass, matter and photons (ND)
3.10 Mechanics of solids and fluids
4. WAVE THEORY
4.2 Chaos theory
4.3 Mechanical waves
4.4 Standing waves and quantum mechanics
4.5 Wave equation
4.6 The action potential as a wave
4.7 The Doppler effect
4.8 The mechanism of gravitation (ND)
5.1 What is temperature?
5.2 The ideal-gas laws
5.3 Boltzmann’s law and the kinetic theory of gases
5.4 Heat and the first law of thermodynamics (ND)
5.5 Laws of radiation (ND)
5.6 Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics (ND)
5.7 Stankov’s law of photon thermodynamics (ND)
6. ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM
6.1 Etymology of concepts
6.2 Basic quantities and units of electricity (ND
– The charge of the basic photon qp is the elementary area (Ks) of space-time
– The fundamental unit of charge e is geometric area of the electron
6.3 What are permettivity and permeability of free space (ND)?
6.4 Coulomb’s law and the electric field
6.5 Gauß’s law and its applications
6.6 Nabla- and Laplace-operators
6.7 Electric potential
6.8 Capacitance, dielectrics and electrostatic energy
6.9 Electric current and superconductivity
– Essay: The theory of superconductivity in the light of the Universal Law
6.10 The magnetic field
6.11 The quantum Hall effect (ND)
6.12 Precursors of Maxwell’s equations – electromagnetism of matter
6.13 Maxwell’s equations are derivations of the Universal Law
6.14 The wave function is the differential form of the universal equation
7. QUANTUM MECHANICS
7.1 Bohr model of energy quantization anticipates the inhomogeneity of space-time (ND)
7.2 Schrödinger’s wave equation of quantum mechanics is an application of the universal equation
7.3 Heisenberg uncertainty principle is an intuitive notion of the Universal Law
7.4 Selected solutions of quantum mechanics in the light of the Universal Law
1. Example: What is electronvolt?
2. Example: Rest mass and binding energy of hadrons
3. Example: The mass of the p-mesons (pions) is a function of the mass of the basic photon
4. Example: Annihilation of particles and antiparticles
5. Example: Experimental research in physics is a tautology of the Universal Law
6. Example: How to calculate the mass of neutrinos?
8. SPACE-TIME CONCEPT OF PHYSICS
8.1 Classical mechanics
8.2 The concept of relativity in electromagnetism
8.3 The space-time concept of the special and general theory of relativity
8.4 Rest mass is a synonym for the certain event. Relativistic mass is a synonym for Kolmogoroff’s probability set
9.2 Hubble’s Law is an application of the Universal law for the visible universe
9.3 From Newton’s law to the visible universe (ND)
9.4 The cosmological outlook of traditional physics in the light of the Universal Law
9.5 The role of the CBR-constant in cosmology
9.6 Pitfalls in the conventional interpretation of redshifts
9.7 What do „Planck’s parameters of the big bang“ really mean (ND)?
9.8 Adiabatic expansion of the universe
9.9 Derivation rule of absolute constants (ND)
– Galilei’s famous experiment of gravitation assesses the Universal Law with the Pythagorean theorem
– The numerical input-output model of space-time
Any genuine discovery has a specific, individual history that goes beyond the impartial scientific presentation which it acquires after accomplishment. To comprehend a scientific breakthrough as a personal, human endeavour, one has to know how the ideas have evolved in time before they have been molded into a written form. To highlight this aspect, I will say a few words on the chronological discovery of the Universal Law in science. I deliberately say “in science“ and not “in nature“ because the Law is an integral part of consciousness and all scientific disciplines which it integrates are a priori categorical systems of the human mind; these are applied in a secondary manner to the external world. The epistemological arrow of knowledge points from the mind towards nature and not vice versa – scientific discoveries occur initially in the mind and are only then confirmed in nature. Contrary to the general belief, fundamental scientific discoveries are never a product of empiric research – the latter is rather a consequence of the scientific ideas of human consciousness. The present volume will prove this basic aspect of human cognition in a profound way.
In 1993, in the course of my clinical research activities which I was carrying out with growing discontent from a scientific point of view – I realized that any clinical research operated in a state of profound agnosticism with respect to the regulation of human cells and the organism so that the results which we obtained were more than doubtful -, I discovered through pure introspection a novel principle of biological regulation that had not been previously described. This principle assessed the energy transformation in the cell. Based on this principle, I could explain for the first time the dynamic regulation of the cell and the organism, while incorporating the abundance of scientific facts in the bio-sciences that previously could not be fitted into a coherent theory. This initial discovery was a tremendous revelation that swept away my grudging discontent with present-day science as a source of cognition, which had been tormenting my mind since my early youth. In a frenetic effort, I developed within a short period of time this principle into a general theory of biological regulation. It includes all bio-sciences, such as biology, biochemistry, physiology, genetics, medicine and pharmacology. Its chief achievements are: 1) a new unified theory of the pathology of diseases, such as cancer and AIDS; 2) a new axiomatic science of the pharmacological effects of drugs and related agents based on just a few postulates that allow one to predict the therapeutic and adverse effects of any drug or chemical entity from its chemical structure; 3) a new approach to the dynamic regulation of the genetic code that allows for the first time the explanation of gene sequences and mutations in terms of protein structure and function in the cell; 4) a new theory of the treatment of chronic diseases, most of which are incurable with conventional methods of therapy. The latter was confirmed by clinical results.
As the reader may perceive, the first phase of my discovery was closely linked with my professional interests and activities as a physician. I began with the writing of the general theory of biological regulation in 1994 and had to modify it many times before it acquired its final version in the spring of 1999. This theory is given in volume III of the present tetralogy.
In 1994, while I was still elaborating the general theory of biological regulation and testing its validity on the basis of numerous publications, I came to the conclusion that this energetic principle was a manifestation of a Universal Law of Nature. I knew from my previous physical studies that conventional physics rejected the existence of a single law of nature and that its theory was based on the description of numerous laws, such as: Newton’s three laws of classical mechanics, Newton’s famous law of gravitation, Kepler’s laws on the rotation of planets, a number of laws on the behaviour of gases, fluids and levers, the first law of thermodynamics on the conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics on the growing entropy, diverse laws of radiation, numerous laws of electrostatics, electrodynamics, electricity, and magnetism which are summarized in Maxwell’s four equations of electromagnetism, laws of wave theory, Einstein’s famous law on the equivalence of mass and energy, Schrödinger wave equation of quantum mechanics and so on. The very listing of these numerous laws, according to which physical nature was believed to operate as an ordered whole, had an exasperating impact on my intellectual efforts. On the other hand, I recalled that Einstein himself must have believed in the existence of “a universal field equation“ with which all physical laws could be integrated. His belief had been shared by many famous physicists between the two World Wars. Although none of them had succeeded in finding this universal field equation, the hope had not been wholly abandoned, notwithstanding the fact that modern physics had, in the meantime, drifted away from its past striving for unification.
The task was challenging, but not impossible. The novel principle of biological regulation discovered by myself allowed the exact calculation of the energy exchange in the cell and the human organism. If this principle was valid for such a complicated energetic system as the biological organism, it should also hold in inorganic matter. This conviction gave me the strength to apply it to the physical world. The mathematical expression of this principle was identical to that of Planck’s equation for the energy of photons: E=hf. In fact, it was a simple function y=ax which can also be presented as a rule of three: a=b/c. My intuition was telling me that, before I should implement this principle for the unification of all known physical laws, I ought to establish the epistemological basis of this equation. For this reason, I resorted to the principles of mathematical formalism and solved the problem within the theory of mathematics. I came to the conclusion that there is a primary term of our consciousness, from which all other mathematical terms can be derived in an axiomatic manner. As all physical laws are mathematical equations, this should also hold for these formulae. I analysed the numerous laws from an epistemological point of view and came to the conclusion that they all assess various energetic interactions. I concluded that “energy“ should be the primary term of physics. As this discipline had also introduced the term “space-time“ in the theory of relativity, I had to show in a second step that energy and space-time were equivalent terms. In this process, I defined the properties of the primary term “energy = space-time“ in an irrevocable manner and showed that both mathematics and physics could be axiomatically derived from this term. It is important to observe that until then physics did not know what energy really was. In this way, I developed the outlines of a new physical and mathematical axiomatics based on a few symbols (space-time symbolism). Equipped with this powerful tool, I immersed into the cognitive abysses of conventional physical theory. By the end of 1995, I was able to show that all known physical laws and their applications can be derived from this one law by means of mathematics. I called it the “Universal Law“.
In this process, I discovered many new physical constants and derivations which have hitherto evaded the attention of physicists. These natural constants can be verified in experiments. The new axiomatic approach made it possible for me to develop within a short period of time a unified theory of physics. This theory also explained gravitation and integrated it with the other physical forces. At the end of 1995 and the beginning of 1996, I made a major breakthrough in cosmology. This ultimately led to the refutation of the standard model(the “big bang“ hypothesis) as the core of present-day cosmology. Subsequently, I developed a new comprehensive theory of cosmology based on the Universal Law.
The present volume II contains the basic achievements of the new unified theory of physics and cosmology. It covers the physical theory as presented in standard textbooks on physics and cosmology for students worldwide. I have deliberately adopted their common didactic pattern to facilitate the reader’s comprehension of the new theory. After a thorough introduction to the basic statements of the new physical and mathematical axiomatics, the book proceeds with the applications of the Universal Law in classical mechanics, wave theory, thermodynamics, electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and ends up with the theory of relativity and cosmology. Each section contains numerous exercises concerning practical applications of the Universal Law. This volume can be used as a complete textbook on the new theory of physics and cosmology by physicists, students of physics and other scientists with a good knowledge of physics and mathematics.
The new theory of the Universal Law is based on the principles of mathematical formalism as first outlined by Hilbert in 1900 and since developed by many prominent mathematicians in this century. With this integrated axiomatisation of physical and mathematical theory, I solved the continuum hypothesis as embodied in Russell’s antinomy by providing the missing existence proof (“Existenzbeweis“) and thereby proving the consistency of mathematics that had remained challenged since Gödel’s first theorem of 1931. In this way, I eliminated the “foundation crisis“ in mathematics that had existed since the publication of this theorem. In addition, I was able to develop the theory of mathematics further by proving that the transcendental numbers are the only correct symbols and solutions of mathematics as applied to the physical world. The outlines of this new integrated theory of physics and mathematics are presented in volume I (679 pages) of the present tetralogy which appeared in Munich in 1997 under the title “Das Universalgesetz. Vom Universalgesetz zur Allgemeinen Theorie der Physik und Wissenschaft“.
Volume II is a further elaboration of the integrated physical and mathematical axiomatics to a unified theory of physics and cosmology which can be read independently of volume I. However, I recommend the reader to begin with volume I and only then proceed with volume II. In the first two volumes, I prove in detail that physics is mathematics applied to the physical world, so that this natural science has no right of existence as a separate empiric discipline. This is a severe blow to the physical community at a time when the importance of physics for the economy and everyday life is dramatically diminishing and may explain the initial resentment, with which the new theory of the Universal Law was met by the protagonists of this science.
As the reader may convince himself, the new theory incorporates the whole edifice of physical disciplines. However, it disproves a number of wrong concepts, among them, the conclusions of the second law of thermodynamics (the law of entropy), while showing that the mathematical derivations of this law intuitively reflect the Universal Law. Since the law of entropy is in apparent contradiction to biological evolution, which nobody can now reject, overturning the notion that entropy always increases has eliminated the fundamental antithesis of modern science – the existence of highly organized organic matter versus dissipating inorganic matter (Darwin versus Boltzmann).
The new theory leads ultimately to the development of an integrated input-output model of the universe that consists of natural, dimensionless constants. This numerical input-output model is equivalent to the continuum of set theory as established by Cantor. It is the ultimate scientific system that incorporates all known categorical systems of natural sciences, philosophy and religion.
At the beginning of 1998, after I had finished with volume II , I could show that this model was also applicable to the major economic theories of keynesianism and monetarism, which I had already derived from the theory of the Universal Law in 1995. I proved that Leontieff input-output models of macroeconomics, with which GNP is calculated, are applications of the input-output model of the universe. In a subsequent survey of the various theories on economic behaviour from antiquity to modern times, I provided ample evidence that all human activities abide by the Universal Law – from double-entry to stock markets. I could show that all fundamental ideas in economics were intuitive perceptions of the Universal Law. In 1999, I elaborated the basic macro- and microeconomic ideas in the light of the Universal Law in a collection of lectures on modern theory of economics and published it on the internet. Simultaneously, I applied the new economic theory of the Universal Law to the world economy and predicted its irreversible collapse within the next ten years beginning with a continuous and prolonged baisse of all stock markets worldwide in 2000.
Parallel to these economic studies, I was preoccupied with the role of the Universal Law in philosophy, theosophy and human gnosis. I came to the conclusion that the mainstream of European gnostic thinking and the great religions of mankind, such as Thracian pantheism, Greek mythology, Christianity, Islam and Asian religions, are intuitive perceptions of the Universal Law on the spiritual level. This insight allowed the integration of all social sciences and arts as particular and partial perceptions of the Universal Law. The philosophical and ethical aspects of this integrated weltanschauung are summarized in volume IV, which I prepared simultaneously to this volume. Further areas of human gnosis will be covered in separate books that complement the present tetralogy. These scientific works are the first step towards “one world“: “one science“. It goes without saying that this task is beyond the physical capacity of a single scientist – it could be only solved through the aggregated efforts of the international scientific community.
The present volume includes the basic applications of the Universal Law in physics and cosmology. It is organized as an empiric axiomatics , which is derived from a single concept – energy (space-time). The primary term is explained epistemologically and confirmed by the vast experimental evidence collected in physics over the last four centuries. The major statements and achievements of the new physical theory presented in this volume can be summarized as follows:
1) The basic terms energy and space-time are one and the same entity (equivalent semantic terms). Energy (space-time) is equivalent to the continuum (the set of all numbers) in mathematics. Energy, space-time, continuum is the primary term from which all scientific terms and categorical systems can be axiomatically derived. Energy (space-time) has only two dimensions, space and (absolute) time. Both are numbers (relations). All known physical dimensions of the SI system can be derived from these two dimensions. This allows the elimination of the SI system in the presentation of physical quantities. Empirical sciences always assess the Universal Law in their particular object of investigation.
2) All known physical laws and their applications can be derived mathematically from the Universal Law (universal equation) and explained epistemologically by it. The Universal Law is a law of energy.
3) There is no vacuum. There are only photons (photon level) perceived as space (extent). The photon level has the same properties as matter, i.e., it has mass and charge. I have discovered two new fundamental constants: the mass mp = 0,737×10-50 kg and charge qp = 1,29669×10-39 m2 (= coulomb) of the basic photon (Planck’s constant h). With the help of these constants, I have integrated all physical constants by applying the universal equation (see Table 1, inside cover page). This is basic proof that the physical world is a unity.
4) I have derived many new constants that have hitherto evaded the attention of physicists and have shown the principal method for obtaining many more physical constants. These constants can be experimentally verified.
5) Charge is a synonym for area. The SI unit 1 coulomb is equivalent to 1 square meter (1C = 1m2).
6) The basic terms, time, temperature and relativistic mass, are physical circumlocutions for the probability set (0£P(A)£1) as introduced by Kolmogoroff in his theory of probabilities.
7) The standard model of cosmology (the hot big bang hypothesis) must be refuted – the universe does not expand. Instead, there is an incessant exchange of energy and mass between the photon level and matter. This exchange, being responsible for gravitation, can be confirmed by the discovery of many new cosmological constants. These constants build a numerical input-output model of the universe. This model is equivalent to the continuum set.
8) The standard model of physics must be refuted in its reductionist attempt to explain nature on the basis of a few elementary particles. At the same time, the new theory confirms the mathematical and physical results obtained in QED (quantum electrodynamics), QCD (quantum chromodynamics) and GUT (grand unified theory).
9) All physical quantities and related terms are derived from the primary term in the mind and are only then confirmed in the external physical world. Therefore they have no physical existence independently of human consciousness. As they are of mathematical character, physics is mathematics applied to the physical world and has no right of existence as a distinct explorative science.
In July 1997, I sent 500 copies of volume I to prominent scientists, physical institutes and scientific journals and wrote in an accompanying letter:
„As you can see, the new theory is based on clear-cut axiomatic statements and proofs that affect the foundations of physics and mathematics. Any physicist, mathematician, or scientist interested in these areas and endowed with goodwill should easily be able to determine, whether the aforementioned facts in points 1) to 9) are true or not. Since the new integrated theory of physics and mathematics is developed as a system of axioms, i.e., it follows the principle of inner consistency and lack of contradiction, it would be sufficient to refute only one of the nine points, as given above, to reject the existence of the Universal Law. If not, the consequence is a dramatic change in scientific thinking and behaviour. This will profoundly affect research and society.“
Until now nobody has been able to reject the existence of the Universal Law and it is unlikely that this will happen in the foreseeable future. The reason for that is very simple – one does not need any physical or mathematical knowledge to comprehend it: The Law is “being itself“ (“das Sein“), and we are part of being. As long as we are in a position to think, we cannot reject our existence and that of being. Accepting the real world as it is, we develop an intuitive feeling for the Universal Law. Human perceptions and intelligence always assess the Universal Law in the pluripotent variety of physical forms and events because it is already part of the mind. In volume III, I show that the neurobiological transmission of signals in the central nervous system obeys the Universal Law. No science or categorical system could have been developed without an a priori knowledge of the Universal Law because our very thinking and intelligence is based on it.
Thus consciousness is liberated from its present oblivion in modern empirical science and becomes central to every scientific endeavour. We realize that scientific thinking and perception of the world, being essentially mathematical, are metaphysical manifestations of the Universal Law and that the human mind and nature are not separate entities, as they are regarded in science today, but dialectical aspects of being. In finding this, we rediscover Heraclitus’ Logos, also called primordial fire, flux, consciousness, logic, the word, God, etc. The Logos was considered for many centuries to be the divine law of nature, to which the self-organisation of society should also be subjected. It was basic to the idea of caesaropapism in Hellenism, in the late Roman and Byzantine Empire, as well as in Russia (Third Rome), and has been promulgated into the religious concept of God in Christianity. The emotional and intellectual perception of Heraclitus’ Logos is the spiritual source of European philosophy. Its influence can be traced down to all major schools of thought, departing from the theory of knowledge, such as Cartesianism, Spinoza, Leibniz, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel’s dialectics, The Romantic Movement, Darwinism, Spencer’s social Darwinism, dialectical materialism, William James’ monism and so on, but not to empiricism as developed by Locke, Berkeley and Hume. This is the fallacy of modern empiricism that dominates science at the end of the Second Millennium – it has postponed the (re)discovery of the Universal Law for more than three centuries.
Munich, November 1997
Revised: April 1999
 Volume II was written in English. When I finished it, I immediately dedicated myself to its translation into Bulgarian language. My ambition was to publish this volume first in my native language in my native country. The book appeared in May 1999 and was broadly discussed by the scientific community in my country. However, very few Bulgarian scientists really comprehended the new theory. Parallel to the Bulgarian translation, I prepared a concise version of volume II and published it in World Wide Web.
 While the term “axiomatics“ is a basic scientific concept in most European languages, this word does not exist in English. This fact brings into focus the cognitive misery of modern Anglo-Saxon empiricism in science and philosophy.
 A detailed discussion of QED and QCD is beyond the scope of this volume. However, departing from the new theory, the results of QED and QCD can be interpreted in terms of the Universal Law, as is shown for the basic physical disciplines, including classical quantum mechanics, in the present volume.
 “The difference of method, here, may be characterized as follows: In Locke or Hume, a comparatively modest conclusion is drawn from a broad survey of many facts, whereas in Leibniz a vast edifice of deduction is pyramided upon a pin-point of logical principle…This difference of method survived Kant’s attempt to incorporate something of the empirical philosophy; from Descartes to Hegel on the one side, and from Locke to John Stuart Mill on the other it remains unvarying“. B. Russell, History of Western Philosophy, G Allen & Unwin, London, 1975, p. 619.