**Georgi Alexandrov Stankov, January 24, 2020**

When we extrapolate the hypothetical expansion of the universe in the past, we inevitably reach a point where the universe must be presented as a “space singularity“. This state of the universe is called “**big bang**“ in the standard model of current cosmology, which is different from the standard model in physics. In this space-less state, matter (energy) is believed to have been a homogeneous entity of extremely high density and temperature (see Volume II, chapter 9.8). Cosmologists postulate in an *a priori* manner that during this initial phase of universal genesis only three natural constants have remained unchanged: the *speed of light c*, the *gravitational constant G* and *Planck’s constant h* (the **basic photon**). Modern cosmology gives no explanation for this subjective preference.

We have already met a similar concept to the “big bang“ in classical mechanics – the *mass point*. While the mass point is an abstraction (object of thought) of real objects within geometry obtained by means of integration, the big bang is a mathematical abstraction of the Whole. The prerequisite for this assumption is that space is empty and homogeneous. This error is introduced in cosmology through Einstein’s theory of relativity, but it goes back to Newton’s empty Euclidean space of classical mechanics, which Einstein failed to revise:

**Read:** ** The Space-Time Concept of the Special and General Theory of Relativity**

**The standard model** of cosmology results from physics’ genetic failure to define the **Primary Term** of human consciousness = the Whole from an epistemological point of view as this is done in the Axiomatics of the Universal Law, upon which all human thinking should be based. Although the “big bang“ is an object of thought and never existed, cosmologists earnestly believe that they can mathematically describe this condition by the so-called „**Planck’s parameters**“. This name stems from Planck’s equation, which is used for the derivation of these quantities. Since Planck’s name was attributed to these parameters after his death, it is highly unlikely that he would have consented or would have been happy that his name is associated with such flawed concepts.

The calculation of the hypothetical parameters of the “big bang“ is another outstanding blunder of cosmology of great didactic and historical value, comparable only to the medieval religious dogma postulating that the earth is flat and represents the centre of the universe. Before we discuss Planck’s parameters of the “big bang“, a few words on the history of the standard model.

If we define Einstein as the “grandfather“ of modern cosmology, we should look upon *de Sitter* as the father of this discipline. The “**Einstein-de Sitter universe**“ is the first mathematical model of the universe that is still considered an adequate introduction to this discipline. While “Einstein’s universe“ is static but contains matter (space-time relationships), “de Sitter’s universe“ is dynamic but completely empty. This is, at least, Eddington‘s interpretation of these models. The “Einstein-de Sitter universe“ became famous because it implied the “big bang“ as the moment of genesis.

The term “big bang“ was established only in 1950, when *Fred Hoyle* mentioned it for the first time in an interview in a derogatory manner as he rejected vehemently this idea his whole life. The scientific penetration of this model began, however, ten years earlier and gained momentum in the sixties. The Russian scientist *Friedmann* was the first to introduce the idea of an expanding universe in his mathematical model (1922). Departing from the theory of relativity, he destroyed Einstein’s hopes of establishing a single irrevocable model of the universe. Instead, Friedmann presented three possible solutions (objects of thought), depending on the magnitude of the quantities (*density*) used (see Volume II, chapter 9.3).

The problem of all cosmological models is that they rely on exact measurements of the density of the universe but cannot account for more than 90% of the postulated mass in the universe which they then define as “dark matter”. This embarrassment stems from the fact that they deny the fact that photons have a mass as they are not capable of interpreting their own definition of mass correctly. This chain of related profound blunders in physics and cosmology is a leitmotif in all my scientific writings.

As Friedmann’s work remained unnoticed during the Russian civil war, the Belgian Jesuit *Lemaître* was the first to popularize this concept in the West. The pre-war heritage of cosmological ideas in physics was further developed by *Gamov*, a student of Friedmann, under more favourable conditions after the war. He is the actual father of the standard model. The explosion of modern cosmological models began in the seventies, and the diversity of conflicting ideas born in this period reached a state of inflation in the eighties. The nineties can be characterized as a period of prolonged stagnation that has been abruptly terminated by the discovery of the Universal Law in 1995, a quarter of a century ago, by the author. This is the short and not so glamorous history of this new, entirely false physical discipline.

The three Planck’s parameters, which are believed to assess precisely the initial conditions of the universe, are: **Planck’s mass**, **Planck’s time** and **Planck’s length**. As we see, cosmologists have also recognized the simple fact that the only thing they can do is to measure the time, space, or space-time relationships of the systems – be they real or fictional. The theoretical approach to the “big bang parameters“ departs from **Heisenberg uncertainty principle**, that is, it departs from the *basic photon h*, as discussed at length in chapter 7.3, Volume II. The basic photon with the *mass m _{p}* can be regarded as the

**elementary momentum**of the universe:

*p = m _{p}c* = 2.21×10

^{-42}

*kgms*

^{-1}

The mass of the basic photon is calculated by applying the **axiom of conservation of action potentials**, for instance, for its energy interaction with the electron as measured by the *Compton-scattering*:** E_{A,e} = m_{e}cλ_{c,e}= h = m_{p}cλ_{A}**, where

**λ**is the

_{c,e }*Compton wavelength of the electron*and

**λ**is the

_{A}*Compton wavelength of the basic photon h;*is the

**m**is the mass of the electron and_{e }**m**_{p}*mass of the basic photon h*(see Table 1 below). Hence:

*m _{p} = h/c^{2}= h/c*λ

_{A}

In cosmology, the axiom of conservation of action potentials is applied for the fictive interaction between the basic photon *h* and the hypothetical big bang, where the latter is regarded as another action potential: *E _{A,big-bang }= m_{pl}*cλ

_{c}

**=**

**h =****. From this, the**

*m*λ_{p}c_{A}**Planck’s mass**of the big bang is determined according to the above equation:

*m*_{pl}** m_{pl }**=

**=**

*h/c*λ_{c}**/**

*m*λ_{p}c_{A }**cλ**

_{c}Cosmology gives absolute no explanation as to why this equivalence has been chosen for the determination of the abstract quantity “Planck’s mass“. Therefore, the above equation should be considered a subconscious, irrational application of the axiom of conservation of action potentials. The wavelength **λ _{c}** from this equation is defined as

**Planck’s length**of the “big bang“:

*l _{pl} *=

**λ**=

_{c }**[**.

*1d-space*]For this reason we can also call it the “*Compton wavelength“ of the “big bang*“, analogously to the Compton wavelengths of the elementary particles (see Table 1 below). In the light of the new Axiomatics, it is a one-dimensional space quantity of the hypothetical space of the “big bang“:

*l _{pl} *=

**λ**=

_{c }**[**

*1d-space*]*of the hypothetical “big bang*“The above equations demonstrate that the description of the space-time of the hypothetical “big bang“ departs intuitively from the correct notion of the Universal Law. It is the origin of all scientific ideas, whereas all basic ideas in science are of mathematical origin. However, the interpretation of such mathematical ideas at the rational level is full of logical flaws that vitiate all systems of science which have been developed so far.

Planck’s mass *m _{pl}* can be calculated only after Planck’s length λ

_{c }of the “big bang“ is known. What is the traditional approach of modern cosmology to this problem? As expected, it departs from the

*event horizon l*of the “big bang“ as the

**structural complexity**

*K*_{s}*of this system. In this sense, Planck’s length*

*l*= λ

_{pl}_{c}and the event horizon, expressed as radius, are set equivalent (definition within mathematical formalism):

*l* = *l _{pl} *= λ

_{c}

The event horizon *l* of the “big bang“ is calculated by applying the same derivation of the Universal Equation as used for the *Schwarzschild radius*: ** R_{s}/2 = GM/c^{2} **:

*l = Gm _{Pl} /c*

^{2}

In chapter 9.6, Volume II, I have shown that this application of the Universal Equation assesses the absolute coefficients of the vertical energy exchange between individual gravitational systems of matter and photon space-time. In this sense, the “big bang“ is regarded as a hypothetical system of matter. This is in an apparent contradiction to the standard model which considers the “big bang“ as a state of condensed homogeneous radiation. According to this model, matter has evolved at a later stage. From the above equations, we can derive the **Planck’s length**:

** l_{pl}^{2} = λ_{c}^{2}_{ }= Gh/c^{3} **

Some authors prefer to use *h*/2*π* or even h/*π* instead of *h*. This is their degree of mathematical freedom. In this case, the value of the Planck’s length is *π *or 2*π* times smaller than in the above equation. The method of measurement of this space quantity is irrelevant from a cognitive point of view as the “big bang“ has never existed – it is a mathematical fiction, an object of thought created by the cosmologists in their unprocessed consciousness.

The above equation contains the three natural constants, *c, G,* and *h*, that have been postulated to hold in the “big bang“. This is a vicious circle – it is a posterior adaptation (manipulation) of the physical world to comply with their mathematical derivation (After all cosmologists have to perform some derivations as to have an occupation and in order to do this they need certain natural constants.). This approach is defined as “fraud“ in science and is much more common than is generally believed – actually there is nothing else in current science from a higher vantage point of view. That is why this false old science will be abolished once and for all in the coming days, weeks and months and will be substituted with the new Science and Gnosis of the Universal Law, which is essentially the science of ascension and the theoretical foundation for rediscovering the true multidimensional nature of the human race.

The three constants assess the space-time of the photon level, which itself is determined by the space-time characteristics of gravitational matter. This basic proof for the closed character of space-time is presented in Volume II, chapter 9.9. There I prove that the properties of photon space-time as assessed by the *magnetic field length l _{μo}* (equation (110), Volume II) and the

*electric acceleration*or

*field*E

_{o}(equation (109), Volume II) of photon space-time, from which the

**speed of light**is obtained in the famous

**Maxwell’s equation**

** c^{2 }= l_{μo}E_{o }**(see equation 105, Volume II),

depend on the average rotational characteristics of the gravitational systems in the universe, such as black holes, quasars, pulsars, neutron stars etc. This new revolutionary scientific proof in cosmology is a consequence of the vertical energy exchange between matter and photon space-time and a fundamental evidence that space-time is a closed entity of open interacting U-subsets.

According to the standard model in failed present-day cosmology, these gravitational systems were not developed in the initial phase of the universe. They have emerged at a much later stage, during the *epoch of hadrons* (see Table 9-1, Volume II). This would mean that these celestial objects, which are believed to be a late product of the alleged genesis of the universe, have already determined the three natural constants, *c, G,* and *h*, that existed in this form during the “big bang“, that is to say, before gravitation and electromagnetism existed. This proof illustrates again the absurdity of the standard model. It is cogent that **there is not a single statement in the standard model of cosmology that is true**. This model is, indeed, the greatest intellectual calamity in the history of physics and science.

The equation of the Planck’s length (see above) can be solved for the **universal gravitational potential**: ** E_{AU }= c^{3}/ G **(see equation (30), Vol. II). When we set the reciprocal of this action potential 1/

*in the equation of the*

**E**=_{AU}**G/c**^{3}**Planck’s length**above, we obtain for it the following remarkable equation:

*l _{Pl} *= √

*Gh/c*³ = √

*h/E*

_{AU }^{ }= 4.05×10

^{-35 }

*m*

According to modern cosmology,

Planck’s length is the square root of the quotient of the two fundamental action potentials of space-time: the *basic photon h*, which is the smallest (elementary) action potential we know of, and the *universal action potential* ** E_{AU}**, which is the aggregated product of all underlying action potentials with respect to the surrogate SI unit of

*time*1 s

^{-1}.

We can derive from *h* the space-time of all elementary particles (see Table 1 below) and from *E _{AU}* – the space-time of the visible universe. Thus Planck’s length is a quotient (relationship) of the [1d-space]-quantities of the smallest and the biggest action potential of the universe with respect to the SI unit 1

*second*(building of equivalence) according to principle of circular argument:

*l _{Pl }= √h*/

*E*=

_{AU}*SP(A)*

In this remarkable equation, the time of the basic photon is set equivalent to the time of the universal action potential per definition with respect to the SI system: ** f_{h }= f_{EAU} = s^{-1} = SP(A)=1 unit = certain event**. SP(A) means the

*statistical probability of the event*A and is another presentation of the probability set (1,0) in the new Axiomatics of the Universal Law. The probability set (1,0), itself, is identical to the continuum of all numbers (0, ∞) as has been proven in a profound manner in Volume I and Volume II on the new physical and mathematical theory of the Universal Law.

The above equation by no means confirms the existence of the “big bang“, but simply illustrates the ubiquitous validity of the principle of circular argument as a method of definition and measurement of physical quantities. Indeed, it is impossible to perceive why the comparison of the smallest and the biggest action potential of space-time should be a proof for the existence of the “big bang“. Both action potentials are products of constant space-time as observed today and none of them could have existed in the space-singularity of the big bang. This is cogent when the space magnitudes of the two potentials are compared with the magnitude of Planck’s length of the hypothetical “big bang“. We leave the proof of their incommensurability as an exercise for the reader.

The above derivations of Planck‟s parameters within the new Axiomatics of the Universal Law illuminate the **entire nonsense of the standard model**. They explain the background of the epistemological flaws in cosmology. The universal action potential *E _{AU}* tells us that

**every second the mass (space-time relationship) of M=4,038×10 ^{35} kg is exchanged between matter and photon space-time in the visible universe**.

If photon space-time is regarded as empty, massless, homogeneous space or vacuum, as is done in cosmology today, then it is quite logical to neglect the energy exchange from photon space-time to matter and to consider only the energy exchange from matter to photon space-time. This energy exchange is associated with space expansion. If at the same time, the finite lifetimes of stars are neglected, that is, their energy exchange with photon space-time, for instance, the transformation of space and matter into energy at the event horizon of black holes is not considered, the only possibility of explaining this fictional expansion is to assume that the universe has been subjected to an **adiabatic expansion** from its very beginning. However, it remains a mystery where the space that fills the gaps between the escaping galaxies comes from. Although this question is obvious in terms of common sense, it is not posed in modern physics. This is another typical example of the self-inflicted cognitive misery of modern cosmology.

The linear extrapolation of this hypothetical adiabatic expansion of the universe in the past ends inevitably with a space-less point, the “big bang“ (the name is of no importance), where all known physical laws as determined today lose their validity. At least, this is what physicists make us believe at present. While this moment of “virtual genesis“ may suit some popular religious beliefs (as promoted by the Jesuit Lemaître who was closely associated with the Vatican), it has nothing to do with an objective science that should understand the object of its study.

Once Planck‟s length is computed, one can quite easily determine any other quantity of the hypothetical “big bang“, because the universal equation is a rule of three. For instance, we obtain the following value for **Planck’s mass **:

*m _{pl} = h/cl*

_{Pl }≈ 5.5×10

^{-8}

_{ kg}(**Note:** The values for the Planck’s parameters given in Wikipedia are divided by π (see above), whereas this is irrelevant as these quantities are science fiction. However, the magnitudes are the same as given in this elaboration and are also used in many textbooks on cosmology from which I have taken these calculations.)

The same results is obtained when the mass *m _{p}* of the basic photon is used:

*m _{pl}* =

*m*λ

_{p}_{A}

*/*

*l*

_{Pl }= 0.737×10

^{-50}kg ×3×10

^{8 }

*ms*

^{-1}/4.05×10

^{-35 }m

**= 5.5×10 ^{-8} kg **

The above equation demonstrates that the **basic photon h** is the universal reference system of physics according to the principle of circular argument. From Planck‟s length, one can easily obtain the hypothetical magnitude of the second constituent of space-time –

**Planck’s time**

*t*:

_{Pl}*t _{Pl}* =

*l*

_{Pl}/

*c*≈ 1.35×10

^{-43}

*s*

According to modern cosmology, the three Planck’s parameters completely describe the “big bang“. It maintains that all physical laws have “lost their validity“ in this hypothetical state, except the three constants, *c, G*, and *h*, with the help of which Planck’s parameters of the “big bang“ are computed.

However, we have shown that **all known natural constants and physical laws can be derived from each other, or more precisely, from the constants of photon space-time: c, G and **

**h****when the Universal Equation is applied**as this unique and phenomenal Table illustrates at one glance:

Therefore, we must conclude that all known physical laws, which are actually applications of the Universal Law, were valid in the “big bang“ because the Universal Law is valid in all eternity and not limited by the finite age of a universe that has allegedly emerged from a hypothetical big bang somewhat 10 -15 billion years ago as the present-day cosmologists make us believe in their “scientific insanity”. At the same time I have proved that cosmologists, astronomers and astrophysicists can only observe the **visible universe **which is a constant system of the Whole, while All-That-Is is infinite and in addition multidimensional and thus not accessible to limited human senses that create current 3D illusion here on earth and as an optical cosmological outlook:

**Read: The New Transcendental Cosmology of the Universal Law**

The only possible consequence of this conclusion is that **there has been no “big bang“** – this event has only occurred in the mathematical phantasy of cosmologists.

What is the view of modern cosmology on this issue? If we try to learn more about this exotic, initial phase of the universe, we are consoled by such sibylline statements (Physik, PA Tipler, p. 1478, German ed):

*“The relativistic space-time (of the big bang) is then no longer a continuum, **and we even need a new theory of gravitation – of quantum gravitation or **super-gravitation.*“

Considering the fact that physics has no theory of gravitation, it sounds rather strange to demand a new theory of “quantum gravitation“ or “supergravitation“, whatever that means. Isn’t it much simpler to discard the standard model, as has been done in this article and point out to the real cause why cosmology is a fake science?

**Read here:** **The “Big Bang” Is Yet to Come in the Empty Brain Cavities of the Cosmologists – Two PAT Opinions**