**What is Temperature?**

**Georgi Stankov, March 18, 2017**

**Thermodynamics** studies **temperature**, *heat* and the *exchange of energy*. This branch has the same universal role in physics as *wave theory*. The basic quantity of space-time in thermodynamics is **temperature T**. (1) It is as familiar to us as *conventional time t*. While the idea of time is based on the aggregated sensation of energy exchange in the body and the surroundings, mainly perceived as motion in transition, our idea of temperature is linked to the sensation of warm and cold that is transmitted to the central nervous system by tactile senses. Contrary to other abstract physical quantities, *temperature* and *time* are physiologically associated with our sensations. Precisely for this reason, though, temperature (and conventional time) has not been understood.

Temperature is defined by a change in space. In thermodynamics, this change is measured three-dimensionally as volume [*3d-space*]. It is very important to observe that the change in space is the primary event, while its association with thermal sensations, such as “warm“ and “cold“, is of secondary anthropocentric character. Therefore, we should clearly distinguish between the subjective perception of temperature and its abstract, geometric definition as a physical quantity.

When the **Universal Equation** is applied to the definition of temperature as a change in volume, we can show that it is a concrete quantity of time:

*T = f =* [*3d-space*]_{x} / [*3d-space*]_{R} = *f _{R} / f_{x} = SP(A)*

As with all other quantities, the *method of definition* of temperature is at the same time its *method of measurement*. This fact is at best illustrated in a survey on the historical development of temperature scales.

The method of definition and measurement of T reveals a fundamental property of space-time that has not been realized so far – temperature can only be measured in **thermal contact**. This fact reveals the **continuousness** of space-time. As T is *time f*, and *f* is a quantity of energy exchange ** E ≈ f ≈ T**, this would mean that thermal exchange takes place between contiguous levels – space-time is continuous (primary axiom). This fundamental property of space-time also includes

*photon space-time*. This aspect is not fully comprehended in thermodynamics.

The measurement of T takes place in **thermal equilibrium**, also known as the **zeroth law of thermodynamics**. This law says that if two objects are in a thermal equilibrium with a third (through contact), they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. This is an intuitive notion of the primary term as a continuum.

The zeroth law anticipates the existence of a common thermodynamic level of space-time, which is part of all material objects (U-subset of matter). The *absolute time* of this level is constant **T = cons**., because its space-time is also constant. I shall elaborate this aspect in detail below.

As we see, all basic ideas of physics are intuitive perceptions of the nature of the primary term. This also holds for thermodynamics. *Thermal contact* and *equilibrium* are the real prerequisites for the definition and measurement of temperature. According to the **principle of circular argument**, one needs a *reference system* (building of equivalence) to make a comparison (building of relationships).

The choice of the reference system to which the temperature of the objects is compared has evolved with time. The mercury column of the normal thermometer is such a reference system. From a theoretical point of view, the choice of the substance is of no importance – mercury can be substituted by any other substance. This liquid metal has been selected for practical reasons.

The choice of the geometric shape of the mercury column is, however, not accidental. It is a *cylinder* with the same *cross section* along the whole length of the scale, so that equivalent changes of the mercury volume lead to equivalent changes of the column length:

**Δ[ 3d-space] ≈ Δ[1d-space]**.

Thus, the building of equivalent increments of mercury volume, which can be regarded as constant action potentials E_{A}, is the *a priori* condition for the measurement of temperature **T = f **and heat

**. Once the building of real space equivalences is ensured by applied geometry, mathematics is subsequently introduced as the method of measurement.**

*Q*= E = E_{A}*f*The historical procedure has been the following: the normal **freezing point** of the water (*ice-point* T) has been assigned the number “0“, the normal boiling point of water (*steam-point* T) – the number 100. The unit of volume change is arbitrarily called “**degree**“ and is written as 0^{o} *C* or 100^{o} *C*. “*C”* stands for *Celsius*, who was the first to introduce this scale – hence **Celsius temperature scale**.

The length of the mercury column at 0^{o} *C* is *L _{o} *and at 100

^{o}

*C*it is

*L*. The length difference

_{100}**Δ**

*L*=*L*–_{100}*is subdivided evenly into 100 segments, so that each length segment corresponds to “1*

**L**_{o}*degree*“ (2). The number “100“ for Δ

*L*is voluntarily selected. Within mathematics, we can assign this magnitude any other number, for instance, “1“ as the

*certain event*or 1

*unit*, without affecting the actual measurement of temperature.

From this we conclude that the number 100 of the Celsius scale is a simple conversion factor *K = SP(A)* of space measurement. This becomes evident when we compare the Celsius scale with the Fahrenheit temperature scale (see exercise 1. below).

**Celsius temperature t_{c}** is defined as:

*t _{c }=* (

*L*–

_{t}*L*) / (

_{o}*L*–

_{100}*L*) ×100 = Δ

_{o }*L*/

_{x }*L*=

_{R}**[ 1d-space]_{x} / [1d-space]_{R} = f_{R }/f_{x}_{ }= f = SP(A)**

or

**[ 1d-space]_{x } f_{x}_{ } = [1d-space]_{R } f_{R}_{ }= v_{x }= v_{R }=**

** [ 1d-space-time]_{thermal }= cons.**

The above equation proves that:

“Thermal equilibrium“ is a tautology of the constant space-time of the **thermodynamic level of matter**.

However, the actual *space* and *time* (*temperature*) magnitudes are specific for each substance or object that can be regarded as a distinct thermal system – hence the necessity of measuring its particular *temperature* (*time*) and *volume* (*space*). The same holds true for their relativistic changes.

**All we can do in physics is to measure space, time and space-time of the systems and levels.**

Anything else is the **delusion** of the conventionally thinking physicist’s mind. That is why current physics is fake science as the MSM are fake news.

Thermodynamics confirms that space-time is an incessant energy exchange. This discipline has developed the most adequate perception of the primary term. Therefore, it is not surprising that the **first law of thermodynamics** assessing the **conservation of energy** is a static perception of the Universal Law, as it is no coincidence that its discoverer, *Julius Robert Mayer*, was a physician as the author of this article. Both of them studied medicine in Germany and first discovered the Universal Law as a law of conservation for organic matter, and only after that confirmed it in physics (in 1842, respectively, in 1995) (3). Space-time is a cyclic phenomenon in evolution. This is also true for the history of any scientific discovery concerning space-time (4) .

Although mercury thermometers are commonly used, they are not very precise outside their calibration points. The *constant-volume gas thermometer* enjoys this virtue to a greater extent. Instead of volume change, it measures change of pressure. This isobaric measurement of temperature is based on the **ideal-gas law**. I have shown in Volume II that it is an application of the Universal Law.

The further refinement of temperature scales reflects the inherent striving of man for precision in assessing space-time. Because of the difficulties in duplicating the *ice-point* and *steam-point* states with high precision in different laboratories, a temperature scale based on a single fixed point was adopted in 1954 by the *International Committee on Weights and Measures –* the **triple point of water**. This equilibrium state occurs at a pressure of 4.58 mmHg and a temperature of** 0.01 ^{o} C**. The ideal-gas temperature scale is defined so that the temperature of the triple point is T = 273.16

*kelvins*(K), where “

*degree kelvin*“ is a unit of the same size as the

*Celsius degree*. The number 273.16 is thus a

*conversion factor*(T =

**+ 273.16).**

*t*_{c}As the triple point of water was found to be imprecise, in 1990 a new fixed point for the Kelvin scale was introduced based on 17 calibrating points (minimisation of systemic failure).

This is not the end of the story. With the discovery of the Universal Law, it will be possible to define a new, more precise temperature scale that will be based on photon space-time as a reference system as is the case with the two dimensions (constituents) of space-time – space and time. The scientific foundation of such a scale is based on the knowledge that temperature is a quantity of time (see **Stankov’s law** in Volume II, chapter 5.7). Below I have added two simple exercises for my readers to test their newly acquired knowledge on the new physics of the Universal Law.

**Exercises:**

**1.** Express the conversion factor of the Fahrenheit temperature scale to the Celsius scale in the new space-time symbolism.

**2**. Determine the space-time dimensionality of the *coefficient of linear expansion α* and the *coefficient of volume expansion ß*. Discuss these quantities in the light of the new axiomatics. Suggest at least three applications of the Universal Law in the production and construction of materials subjected to significant thermal expansion or contraction.

**Notes:**

**1.** We use for temperature in physics the symbol “**T**“ in **kelvin**, which is the official *SI unit*. When temperature is explicitly given in the *Celsius scale*, I shall use *t _{c}*.

**2.** It is important to observe that the same procedure is also used to define “*per cents*“. The term “per cents“ is a universal numerical relationship of any real or abstract quantity.

**3.** While Mayer was at first rebuked for his metaphysical style of scientific presentation and suffered from neglect, we can hope that the new axiomatics of the Universal Law will enjoy a more cheerful destiny. At least, one cannot argue that I do not understand Newton’s laws as was the case with Mayer. In fact, it was Newton that did not understand gravitation. This is true for any physicist before and after him.

**4.** One may speculate, whether it is a coincidence that the discoverer of the Universal Law comes from Thracia, which is the cultural homeland of *Heraclitus*, the first discoverer of the Universal Law, the atomists, the first really modern scientists of the Old continent, and *Aristotle*, the universal genius of antiquity, who developed a universal categorical system of science based on the intuitive (or maybe rational) perception of the Universal Law. The answer will be given in the very near future.