**Mass, Matter and Photons – How to Calculate the Mass of Matter From the Mass of Photon Space-Time**

**Georgi Stankov, March 16, 2017**

As the quantity “mass“ is a **space-time relationship**, there are infinite masses in space-time. We shall derive some basic, constant space-time relationships, which are conventionally described as “**natural constants**“. Thus we shall prove that space-time is a closed entity so that we can derive any constant mass from any other constant mass. The same is true for the magnitude of any other quantity of an actual space-time relationship. As such constants are part of distinct physical laws, which until now could not be integrated, we shall demonstrate how physics can be unified (see Table 1).

For this purpose we shall employ the new *space-time symbolism* and neglect the *SI units* that obscure our physical knowledge. The non-mathematical term “kilogram“ will be ascribed to the final result, so as to make clear that we have selected the space-time of 1 *kilogram* as a real reference system. The reason for this is the use of conventional data from the literature, which are given in SI units.

We begin with the **mass m_{p}** of

**Planck’s constant**

*h**,*which is a space-time relationship of this photon system with the SI unit 1 kg. In the new axiomatics, we call Planck’s constant

*h*the “

**basic photon**“. This smallest constant amount of photon energy is the

**elementary action potential**of the photon level

**E**. The energy of any photon (electromagnetic wave) as a system of this level can be assessed by applying the

_{A =}*h***Universal Equation**:

**E = E _{A }f = nhf = **

**SP(A)[1d-space-time][1d-space] f**where *n* is any number of the continuum. This proves that Planck’s equation is an application of the Universal Law for photon space-time. Each action potential can be regarded as a system of space-time. This also holds for the basic photon: *h* = E = *SP(A)*[*2d-space-time]*_{p}. When we set its space-time in relation to photon space-time E_{p} = *c*^{2} = [*2d-space-time*]_{p} = *LRC _{p}*, we obtain the space-time relationship SP(A) of the elementary action potential “

**basic photon**” as mass in

*kg*:

*m _{p = }*

*h/c*

^{2}=

*h*μ

_{o}/4πK =

*h*μ

_{o}ε

_{o }=

*SP(A)*[

*2d-space-time*]

_{p }: [

*2d-space-time*]

_{p }=

*m _{p} = SP( A)* = 0.737 ×10

^{-50}

*kg*The **constant** ** m_{p}** is the

**mass**of the

**basic photon**. It is a new fundamental constant obtained within mathematics; it assesses the constant space-time of this real photon system in relation to the real surrogate SI system “1

*kg*“, according to the

*principle of circular argument*. All systems have a constant space-time because they contain the whole as an element and express its properties – in this case, the

**constancy**of space-time. The space-time of any system can only be assessed in comparison with the space-time of another system (principle of circular argument). Such space-time relationships are always constant. That is why this basic constant is central to the integration of all natural physical constants, of all physical laws in which they appear, and subsequently of all physical disciplines as illustrated on one page with Table 1.

The above equation illustrates this principle, which is also basic to the Law: *f = SP(A)* = E/E_{A } = *m*. As previously noted, mass can be regarded as *time* *f* within mathematical formalism (freedom of mathematical consciousness). The **time** ** f_{p }**and

**space**

**λ**of the

_{A }**basic photon**are thus natural constants:

** f_{p } = 1s^{-1} ** and

** λ _{A} = c/f_{p} **=

**[1**

*d-space-time*]_{p}

*f*=**[1**=

*d-space*]_{p}**3×10**

^{-8}**.**

*m*In my previous articles on the *SI system* I have shown that we can alternatively select the **wavelength λ _{A} of the basic photon** as a reference unit of length and compare the anthropocentric length unit of 1

*m*with it. In this case we obtain the

*conversion factor*:

**A = λ _{A} /1 m = 2.99792458 ×10^{-8} **

as a dimensionless quotient. As space-time is closed, we can depart from any magnitude and acquire any other magnitude and vice versa. The same is true for mathematics – **continuum is space-time**. We can obtain any number from any other number as a relationship. All the constants I have derived in the new physics of the Universal Law belong to the continuum – they are dimensionless numbers (quotients).

The equation of the basic photon is a new, key derivation of the Universal Law. It integrates five fundamental physical constants by introducing the new constant ** m_{p}**. These are:

- speed of light
**c**, - permeability of free space
**μ**_{o} - permettivity of free space
**ε**_{o} - Coulomb’s constant
**k**and – - Planck’s constant
(see Table 1).*h*

These constants are part of distinct laws, such as *Coulomb’s law of electricity,* *Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism*, *Planck’s equation of quantum mechanics* and *Einstein’s mass-energy-equation* of the theory of relativity. So far, these laws could not be integrated. Thus a single application of the Universal Law (the mass of the basic photon) integrates such heterogeneous physical disciplines as classical mechanics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity. This is, indeed, a remarkable result that demonstrates the superiority of the new theory over conventional physics.

In this process of physical integration, we have already derived *Planck’s equation* (see above) and *Einstein’s law of energy* from the Universal Equation. In Volume II I have proved that the other laws which are integrated in the equation of the basic photon are also applications of the Universal Law. This fact is anticipated by the above equation, which is a synthesis of the aforementioned laws.

The five constants are abstract quantities of photon space-time and contain far more information about this level than is generally assumed. I discuss these constants in Volume II, section “Electromagnetism” where I present for the first time the actual epistemological background of the two basic constants, **μ _{o} **and

**ε**(see chapter 6.3).

_{o}*Mass* is a **space-time relationship** of systems, and space-time is a unity. We can depart from the basic photon and obtain the space-time E of any elementary particle of matter as “mass“: E*/h = SP(A) = m* and vice versa. I have done this for electron, proton and neutron as can been seen in Table 1. These elementary particles of matter are open systems and exchange energy – we can also speak of mass – with the photon level: they absorb and emit photons. There are several laws that describe this energy exchange (see thermodynamics). I have departed from the universal equation as a **rule of three** and have made use of the **Compton wavelengths** of the particles, which are known natural constants.

The masses of the elementary particles are fundamental natural constants that can be experimentally measured. They are basic not only to quantum mechanics, which is unable to explain them, but also to gravitation. This is what the famous physicist and Nobel-Prize winner Richard P. Feynman writes about the *masses of elementary particles*:

*„So not only have we no experiments with which to check a quantum theory of gravitation, we also have no reasonable theory. Throughout the entire story there remains one especially unsatisfactory feature: the observed masses of the particles, m. There is no theory that adequately explains these numbers. We use the numbers in all our theories, but we don’t understand them – what they are, or where they come from. I believe that from a fundamental point of view, this is a very interesting and serious problem.*“ (R.P. Feynman, QED, Penguin, 1985, p. 151-52)

The answer to this disturbing question, as put forward by the founder of QED (quantum electrodynamics) is fairly simple in the light of the new axiomatics: space-time is continuum (primary axiom) and all constant numbers, which physicists obtain from experiments, are constant space, time, or space-time relationships that are introduced by themselves through mathematical formalism. The latter is the method of definition and measurement of all physical quantities as abstract U-subsets of the primary term.

Although the mass of particles is initially defined within mathematics, this quantity can be experimentally verified. This holds true for all abstract physical quantities of space-time and brings about the **unity of mathematics and physical world and the resolution of the foundation crisis of mathematics**.

One can illustrate this basic insight with the classical experiment of **Compton scattering** that assesses the vertical energy exchange between electron level and photon level. I will not present the derivation in this article but it can be found in Volume II, p. 154.

Mass can be regarded as a magnitude that gives us information on the *density* of space-time (see Volume II, chapter 3.10) – the higher the density, the more energy (mass) per space. That is why the higher dimensions that consist of much higher frequency energies are actually much denser in terms of energy per space than this 3D holographic model which is created by diluted energy per space.

In fact space does not even exist in the 5D and higher dimensions but is only an illusion of the 3D matrix created by the limited human senses and the introduction of static geometry in physics. This is accomplished by arresting the time in the minds of the physicists as this was first done by Galileo Galilei with the introduction of the Pythagorean theorem to measure the gravitation as dynamic energy exchange. They simply set *time* *t* =1/*f* = 1 and eliminate it from all further considerations. Since then this flaw has been perpetuated infinite times by all the physicists as soon as they perform any experiment and use geometry and/or mathematics as a method of definition and measurement through the SI system. (see also Part I and Part II on this same issue). I was the first theoretician to resolve this issue from a cognitive and methodological point of view when I developed the new theory of the Universal Law in 1995.

Figuratively speaking, the **reciprocity of energy and space** can be imagined as an accordion – the more folds per space (*f*), the higher the energy E ≈ *f.* In Table 1 (right column) we can see that the **Compton frequencies of the electron, proton** and **neutron** are much greater than that of the **basic photon** ** m_{p }**. The same is true for their masses. The space of these particles as measured by their

**Compton-wavelengths**is correspondingly much smaller than the space of the basic photon with

**λ**(see above). Such constants reflect the

_{A}= 3×10^{-8}**.***m***reciprocity**of space-time – this reciprocity is inherent to all physical quantities of space-time.

Space-time is a dynamic, elastic entity (elastic continuum = “ether“) that can only expand or shrink in **quantitative leaps** when it is exchanged, but it never gets lost because it is closed. In reality, the expansion and contraction of space-time are the actual (visible) manifestations of energy exchange, which we perceive as *motion*. For instance, the contraction of photon space-time is assessed as gravitational attraction at the material level (see Volume II, chapter 4.8). This is the common view of humans, who are part of the material level. In mechanics, this exchange is assessed by *velocity*, which is the universal quantity of the primary term.

**Expansion** and **contraction** are the only manifestations of motion that are assessed in thermodynamics (e.g. *ideal gas laws*, the definition of temperature etc.; see Volume II, section 5.). At present, physics assesses energy statically as space or any other quantity relationship, e.g. as mass, time or work. This is the reason why physicists have failed to develop an idea of space-time as a dynamic, elastic entity. The concept of **matter** is such a static idea that has been developed in contrast to dynamic photon space-time.

**The Mole Is a Dimensionless Constant**

In the view of conventional physics, electromagnetic waves represent structureless, massless energy, while matter implies mass and structure. *Mass* and *matter* are often used in the same connotation – **Einstein’s equation** **E = mc^{2}** is a typical example of this semantic tautology. In order to abolish this

**energy-matter dualism**(or

*wave-particle dualism*) conclusively, I shall show here that the

*mass*(energy relationship) of all macroscopic objects can be obtained from the

**mass**within mathematics and only then confirmed in a secondary manner by empirical research. This new derivation will also bestow upon the Old Testament a new scientific touch (See Genesis, Moses’ book 1, chapter 3: „It will be light. And it was light“).

*m*of the basic photon_{p }*h*We begin with the next basic SI unit for the **amount of substance** “**mole (mol)**“, where the term “substance“ is used as a synonym for “matter with mass“ (see essay under point 24. in Volume II). A **mole** of any substance is defined as the amount of this substance that contains **Avogadro’s number** * N_{A}* of atoms or molecules. We can regard the atoms or molecules of any substance as the action potentials E

**of this substance level E**

_{A}**, called “**

_{mol}**mol-level**“, as they are considered to have a constant energy, respectively, mass. The energy of the system “1

*mol*“ can be expressed by the Universal Equation:

**E _{mol }= E_{A }N_{A }= E_{A }f**

Thus Avogadro’s number ** N_{A }**is the

*time f*of the mol-level of any substance

**In accordance with the new axiomatics, it is constant for all substances (systems) of the mol-level. The SI unit “1**

*N*_{A }=*f*.*mol*“ is defined through

**. It is an abstract category that is built according to the principle of circular argument and, as with all other units, it requires the arbitrary selection of a real system of reference.**

*N*_{A}*Avogadro’s number*is defined at present as the number of carbon atoms in 12 grams of

^{12}C.

The particular system “1 *mol*“ is a typical example of how one builds abstract levels or systems of space-time in physics. In this case, “1 *mol*“ is considered “1 *action potential*“ of the macroscopic substance system, which is an U-set of *N*_{A} atoms or molecules; the latter are action potentials of the corresponding microscopic level (U-subset) of matter. All these abstract levels are built within mathematics and contain energy space-time as an element.

It goes without saying that this kind of discriminating space-time or matter is an abstract achievement of human consciousness. As all thoughts are U-subsets of consciousness, the latter being equivalent to space-time, any abstract definition of system or level of space-time, has a corresponding correlate in the real world. Our knowledge of the outer world is thus an *a priori* property of the mind because human mind is part of space-time and therefore obeys the Universal Law. Kant speaks of *a priori* synthetic conclusions. From the higher vantage point of view of the soul space-time is actually a creation of human consciousness.

Therefore the epistemological arrow of scientific knowledge departs from the mind and is only then confirmed in the external physical world, and not vice versa, as is believed in present-day scientific empiricism. In fact, this cognitive process is closed, just as space-time.

At present, the empiric approach is prevailing in natural sciences, while the role of consciousness as an *a priori* source of knowledge is completely neglected. This is the origin of the cognitive misery of science on the cusp of the greatest transformation of mankind to a 5D transgalactic civilisation – it is cogent that this misery is self-inflicted and will prevent many recalcitrant scientists from ascension because they preach fake science. Just as it is unlikely that any of the presstitutes of faked news in the MSM will have any chance to ascend while perpetuating the dark habits (lies, deception and manipulation) of their descending 3D matrix as a strategy of survival in a rapidly changing world.

As we see, the definition of “**mole**“ takes place within mathematics and results in a number – *N*_{A}**.** How can this abstract number be put in relation to matter (substance)? As usual, physics resorts to the vicious principle – a new unit of mass, the so-called **atomic mass unit u**, is introduced. It corresponds to 1/12 of the mass of one carbon atom

^{12}C. The new axiomatics reveals that this circular definition employs

*N*

_{A}as a conversion factor and introduces the new unit of

*atomic mass u*in relation to the standard unit of “1

*kg*“:

** u = 10^{-3} kg / N_{A} = 1.6606× 10^{-27} kg **or

**1 u /1 kg = m_{x} /m_{r} = SP(A) = m = f = 1/ 10^{-3} N_{A}**

From this equation we obtain the Universal Equation for the quantity “**molar mass**“:

*m _{x}* (

*kg*) = 10

^{-3}

*m*

_{r}*N*

_{A}(

*mols*) = E

_{A }

*f*

This equation illustrates the “**principle of similarity**“ – the universal equation holds for space-time as well as for any quantity thereof. As mass is a space-time relationship, this principle is cogent from the presentation of this quantity.

From the above equation we can calculate the **macroscopic molar mass of hydrogen M _{A}** from the

*mass of the basic photon h*as a reference mass

**=**

*m*_{r}**. In this way we shall illustrate how one can obtain the mass of any macroscopic material object from the**

*m*_{p}**basic mass**

**of the “invisible“ photon level, which physicists conventionally regard as empty, massless space (?!). For didactic purposes, we shall only consider the**

*m*_{p}**mass of the proton**and shall neglect the much smaller mass of the electron:

*m*_{pr}**M _{H }= m_{pr }N_{A} = (m_{p }f_{c,pr} ) N_{A} = 1.007 × 10^{-3 }kg/mol ( = 1g/mol)**

In this equation ** f_{c,pr} = c/ λ_{c,pr}** is the

**Compton frequency of proton**and

**λ**=

_{c,pr}**1.321410 × 10**is the

^{-15}*m***Compton wavelength**of this particle. The latter is a known natural constant (see Table 1). This same equation can be applied for any other element in the Mendeleev’s periodic table or substance thereof.

We conclude:

It is possible to calculate the mass of any material object from the **mass of the basic photon m_{p}**, that is, from the “mass of light“

We owe this “biblical“ achievement to the new Axiomatics which eliminates religion as a cosmological concept of genesis (see all my books on Gnosis and the articles on this website). Its secret lies in the novel insight that space-time is a closed entity – we can always compare the space-time of any pair of systems or levels of space-time.

Physics could be, indeed, as comprehensible as religion is to the layman, provided one approaches reality in a logical and deductive way. Both fields of intellectual endeavour do not need an interpreter, e.g. a priest or a specialist. Both can be substituted by mathematics – and mathematics by the new Axiomatics, which is applied logic. Logical thinking itself is an *a priori* capacity of the mind and is thus accessible to everybody.